Figure from The Iron Oxides: Structure, Properties, Reactions, Occurences and Uses ed. R. M. Cornell, U. Schwertmann
Dust to Dust: A Geology of Color ~ an personal essay by Heidi Gustafson on how metals and pigments are co-directors of evolutionary process.
Integrated uses of ochres (ie. iron oxide, iron hydroxide, and iron rich) pigments:
+ hematite (Fe2O3)
+ goethite (FeO(OH))
+ limonite (FeO(OH)·nH2O)
+ vivianite (Fe2+3(PO4)2·8H2O)
+ magnetite ( Fe3O4)
+ soils, clays, shales, mud and other iron-rich earth materials
Ochre terms from around the world, historical and modern
Creative medicine process of iron oxides at various scales (environmental, biological, cellular):
+ pathological accumulation and release (in human body, especially brain, nervous and womb systems)
+ toxic remediation (soil and biome restoration)
+ iron (+ oxygen) chelation techniques
+ mineral-based therapeutics utilizing foraged ochre
Historical comparative ritual red pigments (besides ochres):
+ cinnabar (HgS)
+ vermillion (synthetic HgS)
+ realgar (As4S4)
+ minium/red lead (Pb3O4)
+ dragonsblood (dracaena tree resin).
The role of pigment color and transformation in alchemical studies
Translations of ancient Ugaritic texts (ca. 1300 BCE, Syria, at dawn of the Iron Age) using material pigment for significant climate-oriented healing rituals, featuring the goddess Anat.